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oci_bind_by_name

(PHP 5, PECL OCI8 >= 1.1.0)

oci_bind_by_name — Binds a PHP variable to an Oracle placeholder

Description bool oci_bind_by_name ( resource $statement , string $bv_name , mixed &$variable [, int $maxlength = -1 [, int $type = SQLT_CHR ]] ) Binds a PHP variable variable

Binding allows the database to reuse the statement context and caches from previous executions of the statement, even if another user or process originally executed it. Binding reduces SQL Injection concerns because the data associated with a bind variable is never treated as part of the SQL statement. It does not need quoting or escaping.

PHP variables that have been bound can be changed and the statement re-executed without needing to re-parse the statement or re-bind.

In Oracle, bind variables are commonly divided into OUT. Whether a bind variable will be used for input or output is determined at run-time.

You must specify maxlength For maxlengthoci_bind_by_name() with the current data size prior to each oci_execute() call. Binding an unnecessarily large length will have an impact on process memory in the database.

A bind call tells Oracle which memory address to read data from. For oci_execute() is called. This means that the variable bound must remain in scope until execution. If it doesn't, unexpected results or errors such as "ORA-01460: unimplemented or unreasonable conversion requested" may occur. For

For a statement that is repeatedly executed, binding values that never change may reduce the ability of the Oracle optimizer to choose the best statement execution plan. Long running statements that are rarely re-executed may not benefit from binding. However in both cases, binding might be safer than joining strings into a SQL statement, as this can be a security risk if unfiltered user text is concatenated.

Parameters

statement bv_name variable maxlengthoci_bind_by_name() is called.

typeSQLT_CHR. Oracle will convert the data between this type and the database column (or PL/SQL variable type), when possible.

If you need to bind an abstract datatype (LOB/ROWID/BFILE) you need to allocate it first using the oci_new_descriptor() function. The length

Possible values for type

  • SQLT_BFILEE or OCI_B_BFILE - for BFILEs;

  • SQLT_CFILEE or OCI_B_CFILEE - for CFILEs;

  • SQLT_CLOB or OCI_B_CLOB - for CLOBs;

  • SQLT_BLOB or OCI_B_BLOB - for BLOBs;

  • SQLT_RDD or OCI_B_ROWID - for ROWIDs;

  • SQLT_NTY or OCI_B_NTY - for named datatypes;

  • SQLT_INT or OCI_B_INT - for integers;

  • SQLT_CHR - for VARCHARs;

  • SQLT_BIN or OCI_B_BIN - for RAW columns;

  • SQLT_LNG - for LONG columns;

  • SQLT_LBI - for LONG RAW columns;

  • SQLT_RSET - for cursors created with oci_new_cursor().

  • Return Values

    Returns TRUE on success or FALSE on failure.

    Examples

    Example #1 Inserting data with oci_bind_by_name()

    // Create the table with:
    //   CREATE TABLE mytab (id NUMBER, text VARCHAR2(40));
    
    $conn = oci_connect('hr', 'welcome', 'localhost/XE');
    if (!$conn) {
        $m = oci_error();
        trigger_error(htmlentities($m['message']), E_USER_ERROR);
    }
    
    $stid = oci_parse($conn,"INSERT INTO mytab (id, text) VALUES(:id_bv, :text_bv)");
    
    $id = 1;
    $text = "Data to insert     ";
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ":id_bv", $id);
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ":text_bv", $text);
    oci_execute($stid);
    
    // Table now contains: 1, 'Data to insert     '

    Example #2 Binding once for multiple executions

    // Create the table with:
    //   CREATE TABLE mytab (id NUMBER);
    
    $conn = oci_connect('hr', 'welcome', 'localhost/XE');
    if (!$conn) {
        $m = oci_error();
        trigger_error(htmlentities($m['message']), E_USER_ERROR);
    }
    
    $a = array(1,3,5,7,11);  // data to insert
    
    $stid = oci_parse($conn, 'INSERT INTO mytab (id) VALUES (:bv)');
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ':bv', $v, 20);
    foreach ($a as $v) {
        $r = oci_execute($stid, OCI_DEFAULT);  // don't auto commit
    }
    oci_commit($conn); // commit everything at once
    
    // Table contains five rows: 1, 3, 5, 7, 11
    
    oci_free_statement($stid);
    oci_close($conn);

    Example #3 Binding with a foreach() loop

    $conn = oci_connect('hr', 'welcome', 'localhost/XE');
    if (!$conn) {
        $m = oci_error();
        trigger_error(htmlentities($m['message']), E_USER_ERROR);
    }
    
    $sql = 'SELECT * FROM departments WHERE department_name = :dname AND location_id = :loc';
    $stid = oci_parse($conn, $sql);
    
    $ba = array(':dname' => 'IT Support', ':loc' => 1700);
    
    foreach ($ba as $key => $val) {
    
        // oci_bind_by_name($stid, $key, $val) does not work
        // because it binds each placeholder to the same location: $val
        // instead use the actual location of the data: $ba[$key]
        oci_bind_by_name($stid, $key, $ba[$key]);
    }
    
    oci_execute($stid);
    $row = oci_fetch_array($stid, OCI_ASSOC+OCI_RETURN_NULLS);
    foreach ($row as $item) {
        print $item."<br>\n";
    }
    
    oci_free_statement($stid);
    oci_close($conn);

    Example #4 Binding in a WHERE clause

    $conn = oci_connect("hr", "hrpwd", "localhost/XE");
    if (!$conn) {
        $m = oci_error();
        trigger_error(htmlentities($m['message']), E_USER_ERROR);
    }
    
    $sql = 'SELECT last_name FROM employees WHERE employee_id = :eidbv';
    $stid = oci_parse($conn, $sql);
    $myeid = 101;
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ':eidbv', $myeid);
    oci_execute($stid);
    $row = oci_fetch_array($stid, OCI_ASSOC);
    echo $row['LAST_NAME'] ."<br>\n";
    
    // Output is
    //    Kochhar
    
    oci_free_statement($stid);
    oci_close($conn);

    Example #5 Binding with a LIKE clause

    $conn = oci_connect('hr', 'welcome', 'localhost/XE');
    if (!$conn) {
        $m = oci_error();
        trigger_error(htmlentities($m['message']), E_USER_ERROR);
    }
    
    // Find all cities that begin with 'South'
    $stid = oci_parse($conn, "SELECT city FROM locations WHERE city LIKE :bv");
    $city = 'South%';  // '%' is a wildcard in SQL
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ":bv", $city);
    oci_execute($stid);
    oci_fetch_all($stid, $res);
    
    foreach ($res['CITY'] as $c) {
        print $c . "<br>\n";
    }
    // Output is
    //   South Brunswick
    //   South San Francisco
    //   Southlake
    
    oci_free_statement($stid);
    oci_close($conn);

    Example #6 Binding with REGEXP_LIKE

    $conn = oci_connect('hr', 'welcome', 'localhost/XE');
    if (!$conn) {
        $m = oci_error();
        trigger_error(htmlentities($m['message']), E_USER_ERROR);
    }
    
    // Find all cities that contain 'ing'
    $stid = oci_parse($conn, "SELECT city FROM locations WHERE REGEXP_LIKE(city, :bv)");
    $city = '.*ing.*';
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ":bv", $city);
    oci_execute($stid);
    oci_fetch_all($stid, $res);
    
    foreach ($res['CITY'] as $c) {
        print $c . "<br>\n";
    }
    // Output is
    //   Beijing
    //   Singapore
    
    oci_free_statement($stid);
    oci_close($conn);

    For a small, fixed number of IN clause conditions, use individual bind variables. Values unknown at run time can be set to NULL. This allows a single statement to be used by all application users, maximizing Oracle DB cache efficiency.

    Example #7 Binding Multiple Values in an IN Clause

    $conn = oci_connect('hr', 'welcome', 'localhost/XE');
    if (!$conn) {
        $m = oci_error();
        trigger_error(htmlentities($m['message']), E_USER_ERROR);
    }
    
    $sql = 'SELECT last_name FROM employees WHERE employee_id in (:e1, :e2, :e3)';
    $stid = oci_parse($conn, $sql);
    $mye1 = 103;
    $mye2 = 104;
    $mye3 = NULL; // pretend we were not given this value
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ':e1', $mye1);
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ':e2', $mye2);
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ':e3', $mye3);
    oci_execute($stid);
    oci_fetch_all($stid, $res);
    foreach ($res['LAST_NAME'] as $name) {
        print $name ."<br>\n";
    }
    
    // Output is
    //   Ernst
    //   Hunold
    
    oci_free_statement($stid);
    oci_close($conn);

    Example #8 Binding a ROWID returned by a query

    // Create the table with:
    //   CREATE TABLE mytab (id NUMBER, salary NUMBER, name VARCHAR2(40));
    //   INSERT INTO mytab (id, salary, name) VALUES (1, 100, 'Chris');
    //   COMMIT;
    
    $conn = oci_connect('hr', 'welcome', 'localhost/XE');
    if (!$conn) {
        $m = oci_error();
        trigger_error(htmlentities($m['message']), E_USER_ERROR);
    }
    
    $stid = oci_parse($conn, 'SELECT ROWID, name FROM mytab WHERE id = :id_bv FOR UPDATE');
    $id = 1;
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ':id_bv', $id);
    oci_execute($stid);
    $row = oci_fetch_array($stid, OCI_ASSOC+OCI_RETURN_NULLS);
    $rid = $row['ROWID'];
    $name = $row['NAME'];
    
    // Change name to upper case & save the changes
    $name = strtoupper($name);
    $stid = oci_parse($conn, 'UPDATE mytab SET name = :n_bv WHERE ROWID = :r_bv');
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ':n_bv', $name);
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ':r_bv', $rid, -1, OCI_B_ROWID);
    oci_execute($stid);
    
    // The table now contains 1, 100, CHRIS
    
    oci_free_statement($stid);
    oci_close($conn);

    Example #9 Binding a ROWID on INSERT

    // This example inserts an id & name, and then updates the salary
    // Create the table with:
    //   CREATE TABLE mytab (id NUMBER, salary NUMBER, name VARCHAR2(40));
    //
    // Based on original ROWID example by thies at thieso dot net (980221)
    
    $conn = oci_connect('hr', 'welcome', 'localhost/XE');
    if (!$conn) {
        $m = oci_error();
        trigger_error(htmlentities($m['message']), E_USER_ERROR);
    }
    
    $sql = "INSERT INTO mytab (id, name) VALUES(:id_bv, :name_bv)
            RETURNING ROWID INTO :rid";
    
    $ins_stid = oci_parse($conn, $sql);
    
    $rowid = oci_new_descriptor($conn, OCI_D_ROWID);
    oci_bind_by_name($ins_stid, ":id_bv",   $id,    10);
    oci_bind_by_name($ins_stid, ":name_bv", $name,  32);
    oci_bind_by_name($ins_stid, ":rid",     $rowid, -1, OCI_B_ROWID);
    
    $sql = "UPDATE mytab SET salary = :salary WHERE ROWID = :rid";
    $upd_stid = oci_parse($conn, $sql);
    oci_bind_by_name($upd_stid, ":rid", $rowid, -1, OCI_B_ROWID);
    oci_bind_by_name($upd_stid, ":salary", $salary,   32);
    
    // ids and names to insert
    $data = array(1111 => "Larry",
                  2222 => "Bill",
                  3333 => "Jim");
    
    // Salary of each person
    $salary = 10000;
    
    // Insert and immediately update each row
    foreach ($data as $id => $name) {
        oci_execute($ins_stid);
        oci_execute($upd_stid);
    }
    
    $rowid->free();
    oci_free_statement($upd_stid);
    oci_free_statement($ins_stid);
    
    // Show the new rows
    $stid = oci_parse($conn, "SELECT * FROM mytab");
    oci_execute($stid);
    while ($row = oci_fetch_array($stid, OCI_ASSOC+OCI_RETURN_NULLS)) {
        var_dump($row);
    }
    
    oci_free_statement($stid);
    oci_close($conn);

    Example #10 Binding for a PL/SQL stored function

    //  Before running the PHP program, create a stored function in
    //  SQL*Plus or SQL Developer:
    //
    //  CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION myfunc(p IN NUMBER) RETURN NUMBER AS
    //  BEGIN
    //      RETURN p * 3;
    //  END;
    
    $conn = oci_connect('hr', 'welcome', 'localhost/XE');
    if (!$conn) {
        $e = oci_error();
        trigger_error(htmlentities($e['message']), E_USER_ERROR);
    }
    
    $p = 8;
    
    $stid = oci_parse($conn, 'begin :r := myfunc(:p); end;');
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ':p', $p);
    
    // The return value is an OUT bind. The default type will be a string
    // type so binding a length 40 means that at most 40 digits will be
    // returned.
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ':r', $r, 40);
    
    oci_execute($stid);
    
    print "$r\n";   // prints 24
    
    oci_free_statement($stid);
    oci_close($conn);

    Example #11 Binding parameters for a PL/SQL stored procedure

    //  Before running the PHP program, create a stored procedure in
    //  SQL*Plus or SQL Developer:
    //
    //  CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE myproc(p1 IN NUMBER, p2 OUT NUMBER) AS
    //  BEGIN
    //      p2 := p1 * 2;
    //  END;
    
    $conn = oci_connect('hr', 'welcome', 'localhost/XE');
    if (!$conn) {
        $e = oci_error();
        trigger_error(htmlentities($e['message']), E_USER_ERROR);
    }
    
    $p1 = 8;
    
    $stid = oci_parse($conn, 'begin myproc(:p1, :p2); end;');
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ':p1', $p1);
    
    // The second procedure parameter is an OUT bind. The default type
    // will be a string type so binding a length 40 means that at most 40
    // digits will be returned.
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ':p2', $p2, 40);
    
    oci_execute($stid);
    
    print "$p2\n";   // prints 16
    
    oci_free_statement($stid);
    oci_close($conn);

    Example #12 Binding a CLOB column

    // Before running, create the table:
    //     CREATE TABLE mytab (mykey NUMBER, myclob CLOB);
    
    $conn = oci_connect('hr', 'welcome', 'localhost/XE');
    if (!$conn) {
        $e = oci_error();
        trigger_error(htmlentities($e['message']), E_USER_ERROR);
    }
    
    $mykey = 12343;  // arbitrary key for this example;
    
    $sql = "INSERT INTO mytab (mykey, myclob)
            VALUES (:mykey, EMPTY_CLOB())
            RETURNING myclob INTO :myclob";
    
    $stid = oci_parse($conn, $sql);
    $clob = oci_new_descriptor($conn, OCI_D_LOB);
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ":mykey", $mykey, 5);
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ":myclob", $clob, -1, OCI_B_CLOB);
    oci_execute($stid, OCI_DEFAULT);
    $clob->save("A very long string");
    
    oci_commit($conn);
    
    // Fetching CLOB data
    
    $query = 'SELECT myclob FROM mytab WHERE mykey = :mykey';
    
    $stid = oci_parse ($conn, $query);
    oci_bind_by_name($stid, ":mykey", $mykey, 5);
    oci_execute($stid);
    
    print '<table border="1">';
    while ($row = oci_fetch_array($stid, OCI_ASSOC)) {
      $result = $row['MYCLOB']->load();
      print '<tr><td>'.$result.'</td></tr>';
    }
    print '</table>';
    Return Values

    Returns TRUE on success or FALSE on failure.

    Notes Warning

    Do not use magic_quotes_gpc or addslashes() and oci_bind_by_name() simultaneously as no quoting is needed. Any magically applied quotes will be written into your database because oci_bind_by_name() inserts data verbatim and does not remove quotes or escape characters.

    Note: If you bind a string to a WHERE clause to succeed.

    Note: The PHP variable

    foreach ($myarray as $key => $value)  {
        oci_bind_by_name($stid, $key, $value);
    }
    foreach ($myarray as $key => $value) {
        oci_bind_by_name($stid, $key, $myarray[$key]);
    }

    Note: In PHP versions before 5.0.0 you must use ocibindbyname() instead. The old function name can still be used in current versions, however it is deprecated and not recommended.

    See Also



    oci_cancel oci_bind_array_by_name
    Last updated: Fri, 02 Jul 2010  

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